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广西文场 Guangxi Wenchang

http://www.chinesecio.com 2011年01月20日 15:14 网络孔子学院

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广西文场简称“文场”,又叫“文玩子”、“小曲”等。流行 于广西桂北地区,尤其是桂林、柳州、荔浦等地,是广西最有代表性和影响力 曲艺 形式。清代道光年间,江苏、浙江一带的时调小曲传入广西,在流传 过程中逐渐与桂林方言融合,并受当地民歌 戏曲 的影响,至清末逐渐形成了以桂林方言 演唱的、具有桂北地方特色的广西文场。
Guangxi Wenchang is called Wenchang for short, and is prevalent in mandarin-speaking areas north of Guilin in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, especially in Guilin, Liuzhou and so on. Guangxi Wenchangis the representative form of Quyi in this region, having reached here early in the Daoguang reign (1821-1851) of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) from Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces.

广西文场以唱为主,间有说白。演唱 形式为数人坐唱,有生、 、净、丑等行当 之分,根据唱本中的人物来决定演唱人数,每人承担一个角色 。每个演唱者还要兼操一件伴奏 乐器,主奏乐器 为扬琴,另有琵琶、三弦、二胡、笛子、云板、碟子等。也有化妆、穿戏服 演唱的,叫“文场挂衣”。五六十年代以后,表演形式分为站唱和走唱,“站唱”即演唱者一人手持云板或碟子击节演唱,“走唱”则是歌舞结合,配以小乐队伴奏。
Sung in the Guilin dialect and much influenced by local folk songs and local drama, arias predominate in Wenchang with dialogues playing a secondary role. Several people sit and sing the traditional opera parts, such as the young man, young woman and clown. The number of singers is determined by the number of characters or parts to be sung. Each singer also plays an instrument, which may be a dulcimer, Pipa(lute), Erhu(a two-stringed bowed instrument), flute, clappers or a gong. The players may be dressed in theatrical costumes, in which case the performance is called Wenchang Guayi, meaning "with costume." After the 1960s, Wenchang became to be staged in theaters. Another form of Wenchang is called Zouchang, which involves singing while walking or dancing.

广西文场艺术流派 的形成,基本是以专业和业余不同的演唱风格而划分的。文场早期的职业艺人 多为盲人,他们组成“玩子班”,或受雇为某一家人演唱,或拉着胡琴走街串户卖唱,他们的唱腔 朴实无华,被称为“瞎派”。一些志同道合的业余文场爱好者则组成“玩子馆”或“文场社”,自唱自娱,共同切磋技艺,唱腔追求华丽多彩,被称为“光派”。文场的音乐唱腔分大调和小调两类。所唱曲目内容多取自明清的传奇小说,如《玉簪记》、《白蛇传》、《西厢记》等。近年来,广西文场伴随着美丽的桂林山水,以新的内容和表现手段,展现在文艺舞台上,创作了一些歌颂 桂林山水风光的抒情小段,如《画中游》、《仙境怎比我桂林》、《七星夜游》等。
The vocal music of Guangxi Wenchangis divided into Dadiao and Xiaodiao(canzonet). The narratives of the songs are based on historical romances or tales of the supernatural written during the Ming (1644-1911) and Qing dynasties. The best known are The Story of the Jade Pin, The Story of White Snake and The Western Bower Descriptions of beautiful scenery in Guilin appeared in the form of Guangxi Wenchang in recent years. Examples are Strolling in a Picture, The Fairyland of Guilin and A Visit to the Seven Star Cave at Night.

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