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西河大鼓 Xihe Dagu

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年12月23日 15:24 网络孔子学院

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西河大鼓是北方著名 的鼓书暨鼓曲形式,普遍流行 于河北境内并流传于周边河南、山东、北京、天津、内蒙古及东北地区。在流传过程中曾有过“弦子鼓”、“河间大鼓”等名称 ,20世纪20年代在天津被定名为“西河大鼓”,沿用至今。
Xihe Dagu forms the biggest family in the Dagu clan. It has a very long history with a huge audience in Hebei and Shandong provinces, Tianjin and Beijing municipalities, and Northeast and Northwest China. It originated from the Xianzishu and Hejian Dagu in the central area of Hubei Province in the mid Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). It officially got the name of Xihe Dagu in the performance in Tianjin during the 1920s.

西河大鼓由木板大鼓发展而来,创始人 一般认为是木板大鼓的著名艺人 马三峰,起源时间约在清代道光、咸丰年间。早期,西河大鼓以说唱中、长篇书目 为主,如《杨家将》、《呼家将》等。西河大鼓进入天津后,发展迅速,出现了许多著名艺人,产生了北口朱(化麟)派、王(振元)派,南口李(德全)派、赵(玉峰)派,以及40年代由马增芬及其父马连登创立的专工短段的马派,使西河大鼓流派 纷呈,展现出多彩多姿的艺术风格
It used to be sung and spoken in Hebei dialect. At the early stage, stories were mostly medium length or long, such as the Generals of the Yang Family and Generals of the Hu Family. When Xihe Dagu became popular in Beijing, it underwent reformation by the noted artist Zhao Yufeng, who changed the Hebei regional pronunciation and made it more akin to the Beijing dialect. Around 1940, other artists emerged, such as Ma Liandeng and Ma Zengfen, a father and daughter team, who sang short stories without narrative. The style of singing has been enriched and the clapping far more diversified.

西河大鼓的表演 形式为一人自击铜板和书鼓说唱 ,另有专人操三弦伴奏 。其唱腔 简洁苍劲,风格似说似唱,韵味非常独特。西河大鼓的传统书目,有中长篇150余部,小段370余篇。内容大部分是历代战争故事 、历史演义、民间故事、通俗小说、神话故事和寓言笑话等。其中不少书目在不同程度上反映了劳动人民的思想感情,情节曲折,语言生动,继承了中国民间文学的优良传统。2006年,西河大鼓列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。
Xihe Dagu has lots of traditional items of either long or short length. The contents are mainly war stories of the past dynasties, history romances, folk stories, popular novels, fairy tales, fables and jokes, etc. Among them, quite a few items reflect the thoughts, feelings and hopes of the working people, feature labyrinthian plots and vivid language, and inherit the good tradition of folk literature in China.

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