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凤阳花鼓 Fengyang Huagu

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年11月26日 10:49 网络孔子学院

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凤阳花鼓,又称“花鼓小锣”、“双条鼓”等,是一种集曲艺 和歌舞为一体的民间表演艺术 ,但以曲艺形态的说唱表演 最为著名,一般认为形成于明代。有首著名的《凤阳歌》,唱的是:“说凤阳,道凤阳,凤阳本是好地方,自从出了朱皇帝,十年倒有九年荒。大户人家卖牛马,小户人家卖儿郎,奴家没有儿郎卖,身背花鼓走四方”。凤阳虽然是明朝开国皇帝朱元璋的故乡 ,但灾荒不断,许多人家离开家园,以打花鼓唱曲为生,所以凤阳花鼓又成了贫穷讨饭的象征
Fengyang Huagu (flower drum), also called Huagu Xiaoluo or Shuangtiao Gu, is a local Quyi genre in Fengyang County of East China's Anhui Province. It was formed along the Huahe valley in late years of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). At that time, Fengyang County was plagued by floods and draughts, and many people went out begging, singing Huagu. Thus, Huagu became a symbol of begging out of poverty at the first beginning.

凤阳花鼓最初的表现形式为姑嫂二人,一人击鼓,一人击锣,口唱小调,鼓锣间敲。后来,文艺工作者对凤阳花鼓加以改革 ,增加了一些新的表现手法,剔除了小锣,专用小鼓伴奏 演唱 ,同时根据击鼓用的鼓条特征,将其改称为“双条鼓”。
Most performers of Fengyang Huagu were female and usually sisters-in-law sang together. During the performance, the two persons sang together while sitting on a bench and beat gongs and drums during interval of two sections without accompaniment of thread or string instruments. Later, Shuangtiaogu replaced Huagu, i.e. the performer holds a small drum in her left hand and beats it with a double-drum arrow in her right hand. Huagu artists brought back many kinds of folk songs and music from other places, and gradually enriched arias of Fengyang Huagu and developed several dancing and singing forms based on the Huagu tune. Fengyang Huagu does not have long traditional items, its materials are mainly love stories and singing style is relatively flexible. Fengyang Huagu is widespread and has certain influence on tunes and performing styles of Quyi arts in other places.

改革开放以后,凤阳花鼓的形式和内容也随之发生了很大变化。凤阳花鼓成了凤阳人自娱自乐的工具 。花鼓演唱在城乡更加普及,凡是遇到喜事,或接待宾客,凤阳人总要热情表演一番,以表达欢乐的心情。花鼓的打法、舞步 、花势、演唱等揉进了现代歌舞的技巧 ,在保持浓郁 的地方特色的同时,形式更加活泼多样,气氛更加热烈欢快,不仅在国内的表演和比赛 中屡屡获奖,走出国门也是获得盛誉。2006年,该曲艺经国务院批准列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。
After China's reform and opening-up in 1979, Fengyang Huagu witnessed many changes in forms and contents. It became a tool of self-entertaining for people in Fengyang County and was more popular in townships. Beating the flower drum, dancing and singing integrated some skills of modern dances and the forms of Fengyang Huagu became more vivacious and diversified. Fengyang Huagu became more and more famous and its artists were invited to perform in countries such as Japan several times in recent years and won much recognition there.

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