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越剧 Shaoxing Opera

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越剧是中国五大戏曲 剧种 之一。越剧发源于浙江省绍兴地区的嵊州市(原称嵊县),曾称小歌班、的笃班、绍兴戏等。1925年上海《申报》演出 广告中首次以“越剧”称呼 此剧种。1938年开始,多数戏班、剧团称“越剧”。新中国成立后统一称“越剧”。其前身是嵊县一带流行 的说唱艺术——落地唱书。艺人全是以务农出身为主的男性演员 ,故俗称男班。曲调沿用唱书时的“呤哦调”,没有丝弦伴奏 ,剧目多为民间小戏,在浙东乡镇演出。
In the early 20th century, a form of opera called Luodi Changshu Diao was popular in the area of Shengxian County in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. It was named "Yue Opera" because it has its origin in part of Yue State in the Spring and Autumn Period dating back about 2,000 years ago. As the performers sang to the accompaniment of a rhythmic didu, didu sound made by a drum and sandalwood clappers, they were also called "Didu troupes". At that time, the most outstanding Didu troupe in Shaoxing consisted of only male performers. In the late 1920s, with the emergence of a large number of female performers, a Didu troupe with only female performers appeared; it was called the Women's Refined Opera. In the autumn of 1938, it formally adopted the name of Yueju.

20世纪20年代后期,女子越剧的著名演员几乎都荟萃在上海,而男班由于演员后继无人,最终被女班取代。女子越剧在上海立足后,为适应环境和观众需求,以袁雪芬为代表的一批越剧从业者,以话剧为榜样 ,对越剧进行了比较全面的改革 ,被称为“新越剧”。新越剧改变了以往“小歌班”明快、跳跃的主腔“四工腔”,改为柔美哀怨的“尺调腔”和“弦下腔”,把越剧唱腔 艺术推进到一个新的阶段。后来这两种曲调皆成为越剧的主腔,并在此基础上,逐渐形成各自的流派 唱腔。
Absorbing the elements of Shaoxing Opera, it enriched them and created its own type of music. Yueju Opera is excellent at expressing emotions through singing. In the 1950s, a reform of Yueju started, under the influence of Yuan Xuefen. Maintaining its soft, sweet tunes and melodies, and gentle and refined style, Yueju adopted artistic achievements from the modern drama, Kunqu and Western music, in an attempt to create a new performing style.

“新越剧”废除了幕表制,建立剧本制,整理改编传统剧目 。越剧不仅向话剧、电影学习刻划人物性格、心理活动的表演 方法,还向昆曲 京剧 学习优美的舞蹈身段和程式动作。从50年代起,越剧更广泛地走向全国,成为地方戏的大剧种,并对外作文化交流演出。

越剧长于抒情,以唱为主,声腔清悠婉丽、优美动听,表演真切动人,极具江南灵秀之气;多以“才子佳人”题材的戏为主,艺术流派纷呈。2006年5月,越剧经国务院批准列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。
The women artists replaced the Mu Biao system (Each drama used to have only an outline, rather than a script; actors performed as they wished, but within the outline.) with scripts. The operas now had definite directors. A special kind of ancient costume was created, modern stage settings and lights were introduced, and some western musical instruments were incorporated in the orchestra.

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