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北京单弦 Beijing Danxian

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年09月27日 14:18 网络孔子学院

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北京单弦 产生于北京,又称单弦牌子曲。是清朝乾隆、嘉庆年间,在北京的满族子弟中流行的“八角鼓”里的一种娱乐 演唱形式。
Beijing Danxian(Monochord), also known as Danxian paiziqu, originated in China's capital. It is a form of Bajiaogu popular among young Manchu people during the reigns of the Emperors Qianlong and Jiaqing (1736-1820) of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).

八角鼓是满族的一种小型打击乐器,鼓面蒙蟒皮,鼓壁为八面,七面有孔,每孔系有两个铜镲片,以手指弹鼓或摇动鼓身使铜片相击而发出声音。演唱 时,演员手持八角鼓,故又称之为“唱八角鼓”的。
It is accompanied on a stringed instrument and an octagonal drum. The performer sings and plays the drum to please himself as much as to please others. The small drum is covered with snakeskin, with holes on seven sides. Two brass strips are attached to each hole. When the storyteller shakes the drum, the brass strips resound. The earliest song known to this genre is calledThe Drunkardfrom Bai Xue Yi Ying written by Hua Guangsheng in 1804 (third volume).

今天能见到的最早的单弦曲词,是清朝嘉庆九年(1804)华广生所编《白雪遗音》卷三中之《酒鬼》。单弦的演出 形式最初是一人手持八角鼓击节,一人以三弦伴奏演唱,时称“双头人”。清朝光绪六年(1880)前后,有旗籍子弟 司瑞轩(艺名随缘乐)自编曲词,自弹自唱于茶馆,贴出的海报 上写着“随缘乐一人单弦八角鼓”。自此,单弦作为一个独立曲种 传开。
In the beginning, performances of Danxian consisted of one artist, who beat the octagonal drum to provide rhythm, and a musician playing three-stringed lute and singing. Si Ruixuan, whose stage name was Sui Yuanle and who was a member of a Manchu Banner, wrote songs and lyrics for Beijing Danxian around 1880. He performed in teahouses. Ever since,Danxian has been popular as an independent category of Quyi.

清末民初,许多单弦票友 下海 卖艺,出现了不少著名唱家,很受群众欢迎。他们当中有善唱时调小曲者,有善唱昆高曲牌者,这些曲调多被纳入单弦唱腔曲牌 中,使单弦唱腔 曲牌增多,表现力增强,目前所知单弦曲牌有一百余支。这一时期,是单弦艺术发展的全盛时期。众多的名家 形成了各具特色的演唱风格。最享盛名的有荣、常、谢、谭四大流派
When the Qing Dynasty collapsed in 1911 and the Republic of China came into being, many amateur Danxian artists who were Manchu by birth became professional singers. They were well received by the audiences. Those who were steeped in popular folk songs sang Danxianon the stage as did those who were good at rendering Kunqu Opera'shigh-pitched arias, which were incorporated into Danxian. This increased the number of Danxian programs and the power of the art to express emotions. Eventually, a total of more than 100 performances of Danxian appeared, as it blossomed during this period. Four schools came into being -- the Rong, Chang, Xie and Tan.

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