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相声 Xiangsheng

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年09月16日 09:34 网络孔子学院

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相声 主要采用口头方式表演 ,是扎根于民间、源于生活、又深受群众欢迎的曲艺表演艺术 形式。相声用诙谐的说话,尖酸、讥讽的嘲弄,以达到惹人“捧腹大笑 ”的目的。
Xiangsheng is one of the most popular and influential types of Quyi. It can be said that nobody in China does not know or like it. It is humorous and highly satirical by nature.

相声一词,古作像生,原指摹拟别人的言行,后发展成为象声,在明朝时即已盛行。经清朝时期的发展直至民国初年,象声逐渐从一个人摹拟口技 发展成为单口笑话 ,名称也就随之转变为相声。在记载中,首先在北京说单口相声的是清代咸丰年间(1851-1861)的张三禄,接着是为生活所迫,改行说相声的京剧 丑角演员朱绍文(1829-1904)。朱绍文为了肚子不顾面子 ,整日露天演出。他在演出前,先用右手攥着一把白沙子往地上撒字,边撒边唱自编的“歌词”,等观众聚拢来围成一圈后,才正式表演。他有时学唱京剧,有时讲解字义,有时说笑话和单口相声。后来感到一个人说太单调,就和学生们互相问答,一捧一逗,逐渐演变成对口相声。他成了当时开始形成的相声三大流派 中“朱派”的创始人。现在北京的相声演员大部分都是宗朱派的。
Though similar performance had been popular for centuries, it was only in the reign of Emperor Xianfeng of the Qing Dynasty (1851-1861) that Xiangsheng became established as an independent art form. The first Xiangsheng artists were Zhang Sanlu and Zhu Shaowen, the latter's stage name being Qiong Bupa. He used to perform in the entertainment quarter of Beijing known as Tianqiao. He always began with a ragged verse which started and ended with the same word (something like a palindrome phrase). Then he imitated the street hawkers' peculiar cries and sang some ancient songs. As the audience grew, he started his proper Xiangsheng item. His stage name originated from a poem inscribed on a pair of bamboo clappers (a kind of percussion instrument) which he had used. The words on the clapper were, "Eating by begging from many houses and sleeping in ancient temples. Never do anything against the law, and don't be afraid of seeing the emperor." Zhu's four apprentices all had stage names in a similar style. Zhu and his two contemporaries, A Yantao and Shen Chunhe formed the earliest three big categories of Xiangsheng artists who passed on their skills to their disciples. After over a century's development, Xiangsheng art has ushered in its eighth generation of artists.

相声的发展从张三禄算起,共经历了七代。如果每一代找出一位演员 代表 ,七代人是这样师承下来的:张三禄(第一代)——朱绍文(第二代)——徐有禄(第三代)——焦德海(第四代)——朱阔泉(第五代)——侯宝林(第六代)——马季(第七代)。
Since the late Qing Dynasty and the early years of the Republic of China, Xiangsheng art has made great advances in content and skills, and representative artists have emerged in different periods. For instance, in the late Qing period a group of artists whose names all contained the character "de', were Yu Delong, Jiao Dehai, Zhou Deshan, and others. People called them the Eight "Des" of Xiangsheng. There were Li Dexi with the stage name of Wan Renmi and Zhang Shouchang art, in the period of the Republic. After the founding of the New China talented artists Hou Baolin, Ma Sanli, Ma Ji, who was Hou's student, and Ma Ji's student Jiang Kun all displayed highly distinctive skills and have become very famous artists.

最初只有一个人说的单口相声,后来逐步发展为单口相声、对口相声(两个人说)、群口相声(三个人以上说),综合为一体,成为名副其实的相声。经过多年的发展,对口相声最终成为最受观众喜爱的相声形式。
There are three forms of Xiangsheng. The earliest form was performed by one person, and was called Dankou Xiangsheng. Its contents were mostly jokes and humorous stories. Later, Duikou Xiangshengor "cross talk," performed by two persons, appeared. One man was called Duogen, and the other, Penggen. When A is the primary talker while the B side chimes in, this is calledYitouchen(heavy-at-one-end), and the subject of argument between them is called Zimugen. Recitals and narration are called Guankouhuo, and imitations of opera songs and words are called Huhuo. The third form of Xiangsheng performed by three or more persons is called Qunkou Xiangsheng. It calls for one artist to say funny things, while others chime in and yet another makes them stray from the subject. Of the three forms, cross talk was the most popular and widespread.

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