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苏州评弹 Suzhou Pingtan

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年08月26日 09:06 网络孔子学院

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评弹是评话和弹词的合称,俗称说书 ,是用苏州方言进行说唱、表演 的地方曲种 。在江浙两省及上海等地很受欢迎。
Suzhou Pingtan is a general term denoting Suzhou Pinghua and Tanci, namely, storytelling and ballad singing in the Suzhou dialect. Flourishing in Suzhou, it also enjoys great popularity in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces as well as in Shanghai, the biggest metropolis in East China.

评弹大约形成于明末清初,清朝以后评弹进一步吴语化。清朝乾隆以后,苏州评弹呈现出兴盛的局面,据说是乾隆皇帝下江南时,曾经征召过一位叫王周士的艺人御前弹唱。王周士后来在苏州成立光裕公所,调整了评弹界。自此以后苏州评弹事业欣欣向荣。The art has a long history.Pinghuadeveloped from the storytelling art of the Tang (618-907) and Song (960-1279) dynasties, and performers only spoke but not sang during the performance. Pingtan evolved from Bianwen that propagandized Buddhist teachings in the Tang Dynasty. In the late years of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and the early years of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), actors and actresses began to perform in Suzhou dialect, hence emerged Suzhou Pingtan. Suzhou Pingtan reached its peak in the reign of Emperor Qianlong (1739-1796) in the Qing Dynasty. In the subsequent more than 200 years, the art form saw much improvement. It is still popular today.

苏州评弹有说有唱,大体可分三种演出方式,即一人的单档,两人的双档,三人的三个档。评话通常一人登台开讲,内容多为金戈铁马的历史演义和叱咤风云的侠义豪杰。弹词一般两人说唱,一人持三弦,一人抱琵琶,内容多为儿女情长的传奇小说和民间故事 。苏州评弹用吴音演唱 ,十分悦耳,在演出中又常穿插一些笑料,妙趣横生,听起来非常有趣。
Suzhou Pingtanis performed solo, in duet or as a trio, involving singing and storytelling. The small three-stringed plucked instrument and Pipa(lute) are used as accompaniment. The Ban, or wooden clappers, produces various styles of tone and melody. Pingtan has absorbed popular folk tunes. For instance, Shutone, came from other Quyi forms and is the basis of other styles.

弹词比较大的流派 有陈调、马调和俞调。三个流派的创始人是陈遇干、马如飞和俞秀山。陈和俞是清朝嘉庆、道光时人,马略晚一些,约是咸丰、同治时期的艺人。这三个流派经过近200年的流传 、革新和融合,不断出现继承这三位名家风格、又有创造发展、自成一家的新流派。如此发展繁衍,形成了苏州评弹流派、唱腔 千姿百态的兴旺景象。Due to different performance styles, Shutone is divided into the Chen Yuquan, Ma Rufei and Yu Xiushan Schools. In the development of about a century, new styles were formed which inherited the legacy of the three schools. Liu Tianyun and Yang Zhenxiong inherited the Chen School: and Xia Hesheng and Zhu Huizhen inherited the Yu School. Ma School exerted the greatest impact on posterity, with Successors who formed schools of their own, such as Xue Xiaoqing Diao(tone), Shen Jianan Diao and Qin Diao(developed by Zhu Xueqin on the basis of Xue Diao). Zhou Yuquan developed into a school on the basis of Ma Diao, while Jiang Yuequan developed into a school on the basis of Zhou Diao. Due to this development, Suzhou Pingtan has a great diversity of styles in singing and storytelling.

新中国成立后,苏州评弹很受政府的重视,“苏州评弹学校”、评弹研究所相继成立。八十年代后,苏州评弹多次出访香港、意大利、日本、法国等国,名扬海内外。After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the government set up the research office of Suzhou Pingtan, Suzhou Pingtan School and other institutes to protect and carry forward this traditional Quyi art. After the 1980s, performers of Suzhou Pingtan staged performances and carried out exchanges in Japan, Singapore, Italy, the US and Canada, etc, where they introduced it to overseas communities with great success.

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